«Public Administration Issues» Journal,

Post. address:
National Research University
Higher School of Economics
20 Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow 101000, Russian Federation
Location address:
of. 307, 4/2, Slavyanskaya sq., Moscow 109074, Russian Federation

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E-mail: vgmu@hse.ru 

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two-year impact factor for 2021: 2,314
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Russian Science Citation Index
five-year impact factor for 2021: 1,898

Ten-year h-index 2021: 34


Journal's Indexing


Research and educational journal
Published quarterly since 2007
ISSN 1999-5431
E-ISSN 2409-5095

Gulnara Shaikhutdinova1
  • 1 Doctor of Legal Science, Master of Laws (LL.M), Professor, Department of International and European Law, 18 Kremlevskaya St., 420008 Kazan, Russian Federation.

Enhanced Cooperation in Federal States: Democracy through Asymmetry

2017. No. 5. P. 72–82 [issue contents]
The article focuses on a comparative analysis of the cooperation mechanisms of a federal center and constituent units based on the constitutional principle of flexibility. Cooperation mechanisms in Switzerland, Canada, the USA and the Russian Federation are studied in detail with the purpose of identifying enhanced cooperation forms and revealing the principle of flexibility influence on these forms. It is determined that enhanced cooperation, based on the treaties between a federal center and constituent units, inevitably leads to asymmetry within the federal system. The hypothesis of the article is that implementation of the principle of flexibility in the form of enhanced cooperation between a federal center and constituent units ensure democratic change and effectiveness of federations. Asymmetric federation as a pluralistic form ensures democratic rights, minorities’ rights, representation and participation. It represents a tool for achieving “unity in diversity”.
Shaikhutdinova, G.R. (2017). Enhanced Cooperation in Federal States: Democracy through Asymmetry. Public Administration Issues, Special Issue (electronic edition), pp. 72–82 (in English); doi: 10.17323/1999-5431-2017-0-5-72-82.
ISSN 1999-5431
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